Wuhan Novel Coronavirus As of this writing, there are over 19 million confirmed cases of the flu in the United States, and over 10,000 deaths associated with the virus, and no vaccine in sight
E LaMont Gregory MSc Oxon
. . . p a n d e m i c
The Wuhan Novel Coronavirus, pictured above, is one of a rather large family of viruses which can attack the respiratory system within the human population. These viruses result in illnesses which include the so-called common cold, and encompass a variety of more debilitating diseases, such as, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, MERS, among many many others.
As in the current circumstance, problems arise when a person is infected by more than one of the large family of flu-like, upper-respiratory system infecting coronaviruses at the same time, which often happens. Under these conditions, the infected cells through the process of reassortment exchange genetic material and can give rise to a new variant of the coronavirus. This is the explanation for the nearly 10,000 deaths from flu-like, yet resistant to normal flu medications, illnesses that have infected in excess of 19 million people in the United States alone, recently.
The coronavirus of present concern, known as Wuhan Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, had not been identified in humans, previously. And, as will become evident, the preceding description is one of only a few facts about the current coronavirus outbreak, which can be stated with a high degree of confidence. Including, whether or not Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, is the actual source, ground zero, of the current coronavirus outbreak.
With an understanding of the reassortment, new coronavirus production process, in an individual simultaneously infected with two or more types of flu-like symptom producing coronaviruses, it ought to be understood that is just as likely that a person from the United States; American, Chinese or otherwise, with a coronavirus infection, traveled to China where they acquired a second coronavirus infection and then returned to the United States, as it is that a person from China with a coronavirus infection, then traveled to the United States where they acquired a second coronavirus infection, and then returned to China.
The best evidence for the truth of one or the other of these alternatives, is the fact that now, even in China there are confirmed cases of human-to-human transmission of the new coronavirus, with no known vaccine available, just as the cases of human-to-human transmission in the United States are as yet vaccine resistant. The difference is that the virus in the United States has been circulating for a longer period of time, which indicates that the novel form first appeared in the United States several months before it appeared on mainland China.
The important and inescapable fact is that a new variant of the coronavirus exists, because the genomes of two or more coronaviruses merged, through the process of reassortment, from mixture and simultaneous infection of the same human host cells.
One of the ingredients that makes it possible to convey information, is the use of unequivocal terminology, that is, words used to describe a particular person, place or thing that are singularly unique to that person, place or thing, and other things to be described have their own singularly unique words associated with them.
We may describe a particular fruit as an apple, and more specifically by the variety of the apple e.g., Fuji, Honeycrisp, Gala or Red Delicious. Likewise, the upper-respiratory illnesses and diseases associated with coronaviruses, are described as the common cold, SARS, MERS and Wuhan Novel Coronavirus.
Zoonotic diseases are caused by harmful organisms, viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites which can be transferred from animals to people and cause illness and disease in the affected human population. In fact, more than six out of every 10 known infectious diseases in the entire human population, are spread from animals. And, significant to our understanding of the current coronavirus pandemic, 75%, that is, 3 out of every 4 new infectious diseases in the human population originate in the animal kingdom.
The importance of this statement is profound.
The question then becomes, how do harmful organisms, such as, viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites spread between animals and human populations?
There are five principal means of animal-to-human disease transmission, namely, direct contact, indirect contact, vector-borne, food-borne, and deliberate human action, respectively.
The fifth identified means of transmission of zoonotic organisms from animals to people, deliberate human action, although not included in standard epidemiology textbooks customarily, is nonetheless an important and increasingly significant means of animal-to-human disease transmission, as even a cursory review of 20th Century medical literature attests to.
Whereas, the initial four cases of the novel coronavirus brought to public attention by the medical community, are believed to be employee of the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market ...
The ellipses, ... , were introduced at the end of the previous paragraph, because mid-sentence this author became aware that US governmental health officials made a formal announcement they were acquiring expertise to trace the genome sequence of the novel coronavirus and determine its origin. In part, to stop rather widespread speculation as to the source, and because it is possible, with a fair degree of accuracy to identify the genetic source.
The Fifth Means of Animal-to-Human Disease Transmission
... the uproar at Oxford
The daily events at institutions of higher learning may be brought into a state of clamour, that is, a vehement expression of collective outrage, by the knowledge that one of their colleagues, now a member of the Congress of the United States, suborned students to perjure themselves to cover up his personal involvement in a years-long sex abuse scandal. While at another university, the son of a prime minister dons blackface to mock, exhibit his high level of racial resentment towards ancient cultures that just happened to have graced humankind with algebraic mathematics, geometry and the science of astronomy. And, closer to home, an academic can deny Stalin's systematic genocidal rage against a people who sought the independence required to determine their own affairs, while the highest executive of that academic institution, shuns the responsibility that the moral imperative of leadership and intellectual honesty in academic affairs ought to engender.
In contrast, uproar at Oxford is reserved for instances where politics intrudes into academic and scientific inquiry.
At a time of heightened difficulties in the relations between the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and the Federal Republic of Germany(Bundesrepublik Deutschland), an Oxford academic had become aware of the existence of, identified, located, authenticated and began the process of translating several Nazi Medical Journals into English.
One of the translations detailed a long-running human experiment in which
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